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2006 | "Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic observation of the surface r…

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Title : Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic observation of the surface reactions during electroless copper deposition in formaldehyde based electrolyte
Authors: Youn-Jin Oh and Chan-Hwa Chung

Journal : Thin Solid Films
Vol/No/Page : 515/4/2137-2144
DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.08.003

Abstract :
The reaction mechanism of copper-electroless deposition (Cu-ELD) under various electrolyte conditions was investigated by in-situ and ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses using an attenuated total reflection-liquid cell. In the analysis of the surface reaction, we found that gem-diol (CH2(OH)O), which is the hydrated form of formaldehyde, was oxidized to HCOO- by the Pd catalyst, thereby generating H2O at room temperature. In this case, copper nuclei were generated around the Pd catalyst and developed to form a dense Cu film, which may have resulted in "bottom-up growth" in the via filling process. At 60 degrees C, however, the spontaneous oxidation of gem-diol was observed in our FTIR analysis, even without a Pd catalyst. Therefore, Cu-ethylenediaminetetraacetate was spontaneously reduced in the electrolyte, and then precipitated onto the Si surface. In this case, the surface morphology of the as-grown copper film was very coarse and it exhibited poor surface adhesion. Furthermore, when the Cu-ELD was performed on Pd/Si at 60 degrees C, the surface reaction catalyzed by the Pd particles occurred simultaneously with the spontaneous reaction in the electrolyte. Based on these results, we concluded that optimization of the Cu-ELD process requires the suppression of this spontaneous reaction by either modifying the electrolyte or using additives.

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